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Hemorrhoids are one of the most
common diseases. Word «hemorrhoid»
translated from Greek language means
«bleeding», which directly connected
with the most prevalent symptom of this
disease – there is blood outflow from
anus. Hemorrhoids are equally common
among male and female. Frequently
females mark acute haemorrhoidal
thrombosis; usually it happens during
third trimester of pregnancy    
Read_______


Anorectal abscess signifies
inflammation of the fat in one of the
spaces surrounding the anorectum.
Infection from rectum by anal glands,
which are situated in anal crypts of the
anal canal penetrate perianal tissue.
Crypt abscess always is at the level of
the dentate line. The reasons of crypt
abscess are different: constipation,
hemorrhoids, anal fissure ecc. Anal
gland infection is also the principal
cause of anal fistulas.  
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Anal fissure is a spontaneously
appeared linear tear (ulcer) in the anal
mucosa. Anal fissure is quite common.
Among proctology disease this is one
of three the most frequent (11%-15%
or 20-23 cases amongst 1000 people).
Anal fissures are more prevalent
among young and middle- age females.    
Read_______

 Constipation.   Now constipation is
one of the most common conditions that
bring a patient to see a physician in al
the world.  For example, 2.5 million
people with constipation (1.2% in the
general population) visit each year
doctors and even more numbers try
to solve this problem by themselves
using laxatives. What is constipation?
Constipation is not separate disease.
There is symptom of many illness.  
Read_______
.
Ulcerative colitis is chronic recurrent
bowel disease, which is based on
manifest diffuse non-specific
inflammation of the mucosa of the
rectum and colon.
Read_______

Cron`s colitis is chronic, recurrent,
inflammatory disease of unknown
etiology that affects the gastrointestinal
tract This disease is characterized by
skip lesion and transmural inflammation,
and it can be affect any segment of the
gastrointestinal tract. This illness also
has tendency to early, local and system
complications.   
Read_______

Polyps and polyposis syndromes.
The definition of polyp is not clear at all.
Presently, only epithelial glands
excrescence, which rises above mucosa,
is called true polyp.   
 Read_______

 
Rectal cancer. These days rectal
cancer without exaggeration is the
problem of global degree.   
Read_______

Colon cancer.  Measurement of (CEA)
carcinoembryonic antigen, which was
found in embryonic cellules of
gastrointestinal tract, is another
direction in the early detection of colon
and rectal cancer.
Read_______
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Home >>Diseases >> Constipation

Constipation.

Now constipation is one of the most common conditions that bring a patient to see a physician in al the world.  For example,
2.5 million people with constipation (1.2% in the general population) visit each year doctors and even more numbers try to
solve this problem by themselves using laxatives. The magnitude of the problem is further illustrated by the 400 million spend
on laxatives annually.

What is constipation?
Constipation is not separate disease. There is symptom of many illnesses.

The features of constipation:
- fewer then one bowel movement per day (previously, from three bowel movements per week to  three bowel movements
per day were treated as a norm, but now this criteria was changed)
- straining more then 25% of the time
- incomplete evaluation more then 25% of the time
- hard pellet-like stools more then 25% of the time
The presence two and more features is treated as constipation.

Mostly the reason of constipation is one of the bowel deceases but sometimes it can be the symptome of extracolonic decease
(much rarer).

There are the most common extracolonic diseases that can be the reasons of constipation: diabetes, hypothyrioidism, peripheral
and central neurological disorders.

Pregnancy and some medications (analgesics, antispasmodics, antidepressants, antiparkinsonian drugs and opiates) can be the
reason of constipation.

However, the majority of them are related with bowel disorder. Consequently, there can be structural (big polyps and
colorectal cancer, Hirschsprung`s disease, Cron’s disease, different ethiology- strictures, rectocele) or functional cause (slow
transit constipation) when structural pathology was not found.
Any way constipation should be the reason to visit a doctor. It’s a bed habit to live with constipation. First of all should be
examined by doctor to exclude such series disease as rectal cancer, Cron’s disease, Hirschsprung`s disease ecc. If one of these
diseases was found treatment should be started immediately and resolute of this therapy largely depends on well-timed detection.
If structural pathology was excluded (most of constipations are functional) there is necessary carry out conservative treatment.

In our proctology department of Kiev region clinical hospital (KRCH) were approved original high-effective algorithms of the
treatments of functional constipations.

If functional constipation is not treated, it can become the reason of some disease: hemorrhoids, anal fissure, anal fistula and
anorectal abscess ecc., which worsen patient condition.




Our results of treatment of patients with slow colon transit constipation

We treated 47 patients with slow colon transit constipation

The algorithm includes procedures of hydrocolonotherapy (usually 4-6), diet (suggest by us) and repair of normal relation of
colon microbes.

The criteria of effectiveness of used treatment:
- High-effective (patient has no complaints)
- Mild-effective (some discomfort or sometimes patient needs low dose of laxatives (Forlax 2 convolutes)
- Non-effective (no evident effect)
The treatment, which we used, was
High-effective – 40 patients
Mild-effective – 5 patients
Non-effective – 2 patients


The clinical case

Patient 18 years old was hospitalized in proctology department of Kiev region hospital 13/02/08 with constipation (bowel
movement one time per 7-10 days), acne, sickness. He has these problems during 10 years, but his condition was worsening
during last 6 months.

He was examined. Diagnosis: Functional megacolon. Megarectum ІІІst. Chronic colitis.  
We applied our treatment algorithm, which also included procedures of hydrocolonotherapy.
Immediate after two week-treatment result: stool is one time per day (patient goes on a diet and uses minimal doses of
laxatives (macrogols).

In 6 month - stool is one time per day, amount of acne increased, and patient goes on a diet but doesn’t use any laxatives.
Colon mucosal of this patient before treatment.
Colon mucosal of this patient after treatment.
Barium enema examination of this patient before treatment.
Barium enema examination of this patient after treatment.
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